I make my on labels on small papers that have fractions written on them: 1, 1/2, 1/2, 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 and so on. These can probably be found online in a search, and you could print them.
PRESENTATION 1 (Age 4-6 typically)
The Fraction Circles
- Have the child bring over the first tray of fractions (1-5).
- Tell the child that a fraction is a dividing of a whole into equal parts.
- Take out the first circle and place it in front on the tray.
- Take our 1/2 and place it in front of the tray.
- Take out 1/3 and place it in front of the tray.
- Show the child how to carefully replace each one back into it's spot.
- Once the child is comfortable with the first tray, have the child replace it and take out the second tray (6-10)
- Have the child explore this tray as with the first tray.
- Once the child is familiar with the second tray, use the two trays together
- Have the child bring over the first tray of fractions.
- Take out the whole circle.
- Tell the child: "This is a whole"
- Place the whole in front of the tray.
- Take out one of the group of 2 and say,m "This is a 1/2".
- Place it in front of the tray.
- Repeat this way up to the group of 5.
- You can continue this with the second tray. Some children may already have a grasp on this so it will go quickly, just depending on what age you've started them.
- When the child knows the names, begin with the two trays.
- Point to a few fractions and ask the child what it is. This will serve as your confirmation that the child knows the names.
- Tell the child taht you will show him how to write fractions.
- Point to the group of 2. Ask the hcild how many pieces there are. (2)
- Say, "Yes, there are two pieces, so I will write a 2."
- Take one 1/2 and place it in front of the tray.
- Ask the child how many pieces are here. (One 1/2)
- Say, "There is one."
- Place a line over it and write 1 over the 2.
- Replace the 1/2 back onto the tray.
- Repeat this way for all of the fractions.
- You can remind the child that we place how many piees are all together under the line and the piece we have taken out goes over the line.
- Once the above has been practiced (sometimes many times - depending on the child) you can begin labeling.
- Take out all the labels and place them in their corresponding piles in front of the fraction circles.
- Have the child label each part of each fraction reading each leabel as he does.
- Some children go through this very quickly. Others like to do this activity over and over again!
PRESENTATION 3: Operations
Addition with the same denominator (I start this as soon as my child has learned addition)
- Have the child bring out the two trays.
- Write two fractions (with the same denominator) as shown:
2/6 + 3/6 =
- Show the child that we first take out 1/6 two times (2/6)
- Place these in front of the tray.
- Then take out 1/6 three times (3/6)
- Have the child count how many 1/6 there are (5)
- Show the child how to write the answer as shown:
2/6 + 3/6 = 5/6
- Read the whole equation with the child.
- Write another addition problem and have the child do it.
Subtraction with same denominator
- Write a subtraction equation on the paper. (4/8 - 1/8=)
- Create 4/8 and place it in front of the tray.
- Point to the 1/8 and tell the child, "I will now take away 1/8"
- Move 1/8 from the 4/8 and move it off to the side.
- Ask the child to count how many 8ths are left. (3/8)
- Have the child write the answer.
- Repeat a few times!
Multiplication by a whole number
- Have the child bring over the two trays of fractions.
- Write a multiplication equation on the paper: 2/8 X 3 =
- Tell the child, "We will take 2/8 3 times."
- Take 2/8 one time, two times, three times.
- Push them all together and have the child count the number of 8ths.
- Show the child how to write the answer.
- Do a few with the child.
- When he understands, he can use the equations written on cards and complete problems on his own.
I'll post more on fractions soon!